All you need to know about the management of Type 1 Diabetes during pregnancy
1) Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease.
- Type 1 diabetes is a chronic condition in which the pancreas produces little or no insulin. Insulin is a hormone needed to allow sugar (glucose) to enter cells to produce energy.
- There is no cure known at the moment for treating this disease. It is controlled by insulin injection or pump infusion.
2) What are the symptoms of type 1 diabetes?
The common signs and symptoms of type 1 diabetes are:
- Urinate more frequently.
- Increased thirst
- Weight loss.
- Extreme hunger
- Irritability and other mood changes
The onset of the symptoms of the disease is rapid, occurring in a few days and weeks. It can still take years to damage the insulin-producing cells in the pancreas.
3) Type 1 diabetes and pregnancy
If you have type 1 diabetes and are planning a pregnancy, you need to plan months in advance to maximize your chances of having a healthy pregnancy and baby. It is important to control your blood sugar as much as possible before you conceive to minimize your risk.
Here is a list of everything you need to do to prepare yourself before pregnancy
- Control your blood glucose / HbA1c
- Check your medications and insulin
- Take folic acid
- Have your eyes and kidneys checked
- Have you been vaccinated against rubella?
- Manage your dental health
- Look at your lifestyle
4) Other tests to prevent complications during pregnancy:
- Urine analysis to check kidney problems
- Blood tests of cholesterol and triglycerides
- Eye exam to see if you have glaucoma, cataracts or retinopathy
- Blood tests to make sure your kidneys and liver work
- Foot examination
- Control of sugar in the blood.
High blood sugar levels in early pregnancy (before 13 weeks) can cause birth defects. They can also increase the risk of miscarriage and diabetes-related complications. But many women do not know that they are pregnant until the baby grows up to 2 to 4 weeks. That’s why you need to regularly monitor your blood sugar.
5) Keep the blood glucose at an ideal level:
- 70 to 100 mg / dl before meals
- Less than 120 mg / dl 2 hours after eating
- 100-140 mg / dl before your snack at bedtime
- Use your meals, exercises, and diabetes medications to maintain a healthy balance.
6) How can diabetes affect your baby?
- Babies born by diabetic women are often much bigger, a condition called “macrosomia.” Because their mothers have high blood sugar levels, they get too much sugar through the placenta. The baby’s pancreas detects it and produces more insulin to use it. This extra sugar is converted into fat, which makes a big baby.
- If you regularly have high blood sugar levels during your pregnancy (and especially in the 24 hours before delivery), your baby may have a dangerously low blood sugar just after birth.
- The baby’s insulin level is based on your sugar level. When it suddenly increases, your baby’s blood sugar level drops quickly and he will need glucose to make up for it.
- Some babies are too fat to go out vaginally, and you will need a caesarean section. Your doctor will keep an eye on your baby’s height so you can plan the safest way to give birth.